Prison in itself is no more effective in deteriorate the released persons as the period after release is considered as the most dangerous period because the prisoner turns from the status of being criminal for the first time to the status of being a professional criminal.
Deprivation of liberty punishment is no more effective with many recidivists; therefore, many voices are calling for finding alternatives for these punishments. The most remarkable alternative is to provide full care to the prisoner during imprisonment and after his release.
It is noticed that the rate of recidivists has increased after their release as it becomes more than 40% of the released persons in all the prisons of Arab countries generally.
Identification of the program:
The program indicates the proceedings which are governed by rules, principles and measures in order to evaluate them. These proceedings include some activities, experiences and connected and interacted situations that are suitable for the nature and features of the sample. They are presented through some techniques and definite scientific ways in order to improve and to adhere some new skills to the sample.
The general aim of the program:
The general aim of the program is to decrease the recidivism rate of released persons and to re-consolidate them in society.
Theoretical basis of the program:
The researcher has relayed on two sided in determining the aims of the program as following:
a- Psychological basis
b- Social basis
First: the Psychological side:
If there is a person deprived of his human liberty and he comes back to life, how does he can find his small society; his wife; his children; his relatives and his friends if they do not turn away from him? There are many things that we should not ignore about the releases person as follow:
1- The isolation which he has lived in during imprisonment and his adherence of the new believes thoughts and principles of prison society which may be negative probably.
2- The changes of the environment that occurred during his stay in prison and how he can adjust with them after his release according to the changes in his behavior during his stay in prison.
3- To pass through the release shock, it means the psychological and the economic status of the released person during the next months after his release.
4- Some of the family members become delinquent after their supporter and family provider.
5- The released person may suffer from excessive feeling of self, he may suffer of shortage, inability of personal social coordination and his Aggressive feeling and the disturbance of understanding himself in general.
The program treatment of the psychological side is presented in many points:
1- The program presents many cores and skills for the released in order to feel more safe and self confident and his acceptance in society as an active member. This will amend his behavior and fulfill behavioral balance and psychological conciliation.
2- To give the released the right to express his problems, fears and his hopes and ambition during the psychological sessions and the projective ways such as the artistic activities.
3- To help the released to make relations and social activity with his equals in order to get social and personal conciliation.
Second: the social side:
Sometimes we look at the past of the released and we refuse him negatively as a citizen, some work directors put a condition to have no criminal record and even parents put this condition when their daughter get married. We should never ignore the punishment of the wrong doer but it is necessary to treat them as prophet Mohamed, god bless him, has taught us to treat the wrong doers as if they have new beginning and to consider their repentance. The family, the bad fellows and social pressures may force the released to return to criminality again, therefore Islam does not ignore the social view of criminals therefore, it has argued for accepting them after the end of punishment. Islam does not accept to degrade the criminal with his fault but it prefers to veil the faults and to respect human dignity as soon as the criminal has got his punishment. Islam also provides economical care of the prisoners. The exclusion of the prisoner from his environment in which he has committed the crime is considered as the most important step to repentance.
The raise of the released person’s morals and their acceptance in society contributes in their reform. The prisoner faces after his release the social shock as society provides on him the same punishment or tougher one. He finds himself refused and excluded from many people in all situations he passes through. When he looks for work, he faces the problem of being previous prisoner. When he wants to marry, he faces the same problem and when he interacts with neighbors, he faces disdain as a previous prisoner.
When a similar crime happens again in his neighborhood, the accusation hand is raised towards him. The members of his family interact with him as if he was previous prisoner and a fault doer. It is as if there is social conspiracy to keep him in the social anger circle inside the fear and hesitation cell all his life. He becomes captured by his past incident that he has been punished for but society can never forget it. He is considered as the previous prisoner who has committed a crime and is still living among us. We need to change the thought and culture of society for the released prisoner. There should be acceptance of him and a real desire to help him for forgetting his negative past and to overcoming this period by starting anew life. When society refuses the released prisoner, it means that he should go back to the crime road. When will be there a moderate view of the previous prisoner so as to give him hope to rebuild himself again?
The program treatment of this social side is presented in many points:
1- To help the released person to adhere social skills and normal behavior in social interaction.
2- To help the released person to respect the social principles by creating the suitable environment and to train him on the social situations and common activities.
3- The released person can feel his value himself among of peers through social acceptance of him.
4- The artistic activities can help the released person to get rid of the aggressive energy and to get out of isolation. He turns from aggression to cooperation and turns from selfishness to realization of others/
5- To help the released to get rid of unwanted behaviors and to replace them with wanted other behaviors.
The used techniques and strategies are as follow:
• Behavior strategy represented in urging, encouragement, idealism, common share, play the role, good listening, verbal directing, use of sign during speech, voice volume, declaration, acceptance, introducing help.
• Knowledge strategy represented in dialogue, discussion, self dialogue, directing questions, introducing alternatives, solving problems.
• Social strategy represented in positive support, attachment of experience, continuous evaluation, social interaction.
• Moral strategy represented in the expression of feelings and emotions, self expression.
• Avoided strategies represented in criticism, excessive recommendation, exhortation, to less pressure on one member to share.
Preparation steps of the program:
The researcher has followed many steps to prepare the program as follow:
He has identified the crime meaning, its dimensions, its causes, the psychological and social effects of the released persons.
He has considered various researches as much as he could because there are few researches in that field in the Arab region.
To determine the general aim of the program which is the decrease of return rate to crime and social reconciliation of the released persons?
To determine the subsidiary aims of the program as follow:
1. To make profitable social relations with others.
2. To give the released persons the chance to express themselves and to support self confidence.
3. To employ the inner power in moral and financial supported works so as to be accepted by others.
4. To train them in team work.
5. To train them to respect others feelings.
6. To adhere right behaviors in interaction with others.
7. To adhere social skills in the interaction with the social disdain.
Stages of the program:
The project plan has many interrelated stages as follow:
– To realize the released persons problems and to make treatment relation during the two sessions.
– To ensure self confidence at the released persons through the psychological individual treatment in order to support their self confidence and to give them the chance to express the positive and the negative feelings.
– This stage is based on:
– To establish treatment relation between the released person and the physician.
– To realize the problems of the released persons and their causes in order to put hypothesis to solve them.
– To inform the released person of the program in general from the beginning so as to realize the treatment way and to expect the result of using the techniques and measures of the program.
To train the released person on relaxation as it is used in the beginning of each session till the program end and the training should start from the third session.
To train the released on the social shock and to declare the distortion, hypothesis, knowledge plans through the treatment measures and relaxation in the sessions.
– To introduce financial and health care to the released person’s family and their sons in order to make sure of their indepravity and this should start from the ninth session to tenth session.
– To take care of the prisoner after release and his family and to find work for him to earn his living.
– To train the released person on how to face the social shock and disdain. And how to act with them.
It contains the psychological common treatment in order to improve the released person self confidence and to realize others feelings as it will help him to reconciliation quickly with society. The psychological common treatment is based on various measures and many treatment techniques.
This stage includes also the introduction of many technical skills after considering experts ‘view. The skills are in the common form during the sessions.
– The common treatment sessions includes also the use of art as an expression of unconsciousness through exclusion mechanism in an artistic expression. This is a primitive stage in the treatment of behavior disorder i.e. violence, anger, psychosis. The main ideas and human emotions can be expressed through art and there will be modal interaction between the artistic expressions and the main unconscious human emotions. This image is an extend to verbal control. Treatment through art reflects the motives, conflicts inside the client which cannot be expressed unless in this modal discourse.
The importance of artistic expression:
• Artistic expression is an important way to express the personal conflicts and problems. it is used to express about the conscious and unconscious motives without any exclusion or control of unfit ways of expression.
• Artistic expression is useful with unable clients to express themselves verbally so art become their language and its colors and forms are the idioms.
• Artistic expression is preferable as it is not a traditional treatment way. It does not depend on explicit confrontation between the physician and the patient or to ask the patient to narrate his memories. It takes accepted forms such as drawingwhich is used to express the inner feelings and emotions of the patient.
Mr. Mustafa Abdel Aziz has dealt with the importance of artistic expression in many points:
• It is used in the cases which cannot express themselves verbally.
• It is considered as a basis of diagnosisand treatment of psychological patients. They are interrelated operations as through expression, the catharsis occurs and through conclusions, the diagnosis will occur.
• It is a way of psychological satisfaction of the patient.
• It raises self defense.
• The behavior of the patient during artistic expression is considered. His verbal expressionsface gestures, body movements during inquiry are taken into consideration. These gestures represent the patient acceptance of the relations, situations, needs and pressures which he has.
• Artistic skills help in developing features and acquiring the necessary behavior in order to establish effective relations with others. Artistic skills can help the released persons to get social reconciliation and to have interaction and merger with society. This will make them feel respect and social evaluation and to satisfy their psychological needs.
(مصطفى محمد عبد العزيز، التربية الفنية للفئات الخاصة، القاهرة، دار الكتب (1997- ص 34))
To organize common cultural, tourist, therapy and rehabilitation trips with share of the released persons’ families and sons. To practice many activities and to improve their knowledge of the tourist landmarks and their national belonging and social conciliation quickly. The trips should be every 6 months.
The trip is a model of healthy treatment environment to attain positive messages. The released persons, their families and the physicians are able to share in those trips in order to intercourse in society.
So you can help your partners in the trip with all you can try by yourself, your view of life and others, what your behavior reflects , not just your work , then your concern should be out of yourself.
To improve some social skills to ensure self confidence by the seventeenth session till the eighteenth session by training on;
The expression of the positive and negative feelings.
To deny request in polite manner.
To provide cultural, amusing, athletic activities, to organize parties in social occasions and for the released persons and their families with the share of religion men and well known characters who will help them in social and physiological conciliation. There should be training on operation, training and employment programs i.e. computer and English language.
In the stage, the released person should become aware of the return to crime dangers and how he can keep on the achieved progress in the program. He should be trained on how to face life difficulties. At the end of the session, the dimension evaluation should apply in order to choose the progress and development degree.
Idea and design: Psychiatrist / Hany El Zaghandy
Design and scientific editing / Alaa Abdel Hady Director of the
research unit / Nermin Elbahtiti
Funding from the Euro-Mediterranean organization